S1 Publishing(Oxford)© 2013

World of motorcycleS
S1 Publishing(Oxford)© 2013
A work in progress!
Notice - Beware! 
If it's not come from us - it's not JAP
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 John Alfred Prestwich & motorcycles.
Designed and built his first engine but it was not produced until 1903.
Says Graciesguide (note it's a guide), Not so...
1902 - 2½hp JAP motorcycle fitted with the clip-on type of automatic inlet valve engine according to 
First complete machine bearing JAP motif. Specification includes surface carburetter and a trembler ignition coil 
I won't give the exact URL, as I might buy a few photo's from them
First complete motorcycle shown at the Stanley Show. 
It had a BSA frame, sprung forks and a vertically mounted 3.5hp ohv engine. 
A single push-rod opened both valves, and the cam had track to pull and push as required. 
There was also a lightweight model fitted with a 2.25hp inclined engine 2½hp vertical engine fitted to a Chater Lea frame & cycle part
Fitted with overhead valve engine
Scroll down for 1904 & the rest of the history (which I'm still compiling with the new info from the national archives, as well Graciesguide & other sources)
Motorcycles continued with a 2.5hp and a 3.5hp, as well as a three-wheeler.
Made the first overhead-valve V-twin
Produced a 3.5hp single, a 6hp V-twin and a forecar having an 8hp three-cylinder in-line engine.
Built a 660cc three-cylinder engine for Dennell.
The company stopped motorcycle manufacture in order to concentrate on engines.
The engines were used in many famous motorcycle marques

Some other motorcycle manufacturers who used J.A.Prestwich Engines
1900 The first motorcycles appeared. They were built to order using whatever engine the customer specified. After a few years they had only one model, robust in construction, that was meant for sidecar use. It had a 6hp JAP engine, a two-speed gearbox, all-chain drive and leading-link front forks. They then produced a 2.5hp solo with a JAP engine and belt drive.... 
Note... as JAP hadn't started making engines until 1902, this must be an error in Gracysguide, How many time the mistake has been copied I don't know. Si Dogdragon.

1903 - 2½hp vertical engine fitted to a Chater Lea frame & cycle part (info from the national archives)
1909 By now they were using a three-speed gearbox and crankshaft-mounted clutch on the sidecar outfit. Then an alternative V-twin appeared, plus various solos.
1913-1916 They reverted to one model for a while - an 8hp twin sidecar. They then added a 369cc two-stroke with two-speed gearbox and belt final-drive, see the 1917 Red Book
World War I. Production stopped.

1905 They now added suspension to their machines and later that year they produced a model fitted with a 6 hp JAP engine on a spring frame.
1906 The forecar was dropped and replaced by a rigid model wit. Other models were produced using various engines - spring frame with White and Poppe engine; rigid frame and a spring frame ladies' model with a JAP. That year also saw success in competition and both brothers were selected for the International Cup Race.
1907 At the very first TT race, Charlie Collier he eventualy won,, his brother wasn't so lucky
1908 Further revisions came along with a two-speed gear and a TT model with an ohv engine similar to the one that won the TT. Further attempts were made at the TT but without success, although Charlie broke the world one-hour record riding at Brooklands.
1909 Road models used JAP engines - 2.5hp and 3.5hp singles and a 6hp V-twin. Rigid or spring frames, two-speed gears and ignition options were available, while the 3.5hp White and Poppe engine was also an option. Early in the year Harry set a twenty-four hour record at Canning Town, averaging over 32 mph, despite problems and delays. Further success came when Brooklands began to run motorcycle races, and there was another win at the TT.
1910 Compatition success continued and by now the brothers had taken three of the first four races at the TT. The range expanded and the main engine in use was the JAP, along with some V-twin Peugeots. Belt drive remained.
1911 All models, including the 5hp V-twin ohv TT model, had JAP engines. Harry came second in the first TT held on the Moun tain circuit, and Charlie came second in the Senior but was later disqualified. That was an end to the major successes at the TT.
1912 and for the next few years, it was mainly twins, with some fitted with a modified version of the Zenith Gradua gear to vary the ratio. Many models came and went and by the beginning of the First World War, the range had narrowed considerably.... for the whole Matcless story, check:
dogdragons.com - a-2-z - matchless
New Imperial
In 1901 New Imperial made their first motorcycle. The engine was mounted forward of the handlebars with a leather belt driving the front wheel. It failed to sell.
In 1910 a bike went into production using a 293cc JAP engine.
In 1912 the registration of New Imperial Motors is recorded, and they offered a range of three motorcycles. A New Imperial, ridden by A. S. Jones in the 1913 Senior TT race, was one of the 63 that failed to finish that year. (24 competitors finished.)
1912 Downs made his return with the revised name of New Imperial and based his company in Loveday Street, Birmingham. He started with three models all using JAP engines.
1913-1917 For a list of the models and prices of motorcycles see the 1917 Red Book
1913 A 6hp V-twin model was added to the range, which continued until 1916. The firm first raced in the TT.
Post World War I. The company moved to Hall Green, Birmingham, and added more models to their range.

The Stevens
(to become A.J.S.)
1905 The Stevens built a bike with a JAP V-twin engine, with leading-link front forks and a swinging fork at rear. They had also been producing frames.

Motorcycles produced from 1909 to 1912.
This very small firm assembled machines using JAP 345cc single and 492cc V-twin engines. Other than producing a few brackets and other items themselves, all other major parts would have been bought in, although they did design the tank transfer. They were never listed in contemporary buyers' guides.

Dot Motorcycles
1908 Harry Reed won the twin-cylinder class of the TT, and continued to race successfully until 1924. The road range was typical of the era and the engines used were Peugeot, JAP and Precision - singles and V-twins. Over the years the transmission gradually improved.
1915 By now, only JAP engines were fitted, along with Albion or Jardine gearboxes with two, three or four speeds.
Post Great War. A small range appeared comprising a single and two twins.

the 1913 C type Zenith at the Scottish motor museum Glasgow
1911 The range was the Zeneth Gradua, with 3.5hp single or 6hp V-twin JAP engines. The 'barred' advertisement was used as a promotion for the ease with which the Gradua Gear coped with hills.
1912 During the year there were many detail improvements.
1913-1917 For a list of the models and prices of motorcycles see the 1917 Red Book
1913 The range added three racing models with JAP ohv engines, 2.75hp and 3.5hp singles and an 8hp V-twin, plus a road model with a 4hp water-cooled Green engine.
1914 The models were much revised, with a chain-driven countershaft, complete with clutch and kick-starter, mounted in front of the crankcase. The countershaft carried a large pulley to drive the rear wheel by a long belt, while retaining the Gradua Gear and rear wheel movement. The engines still came from JAP, but all were twins of 3.5hp, 6hp or 8hp. During the year, the firm moved to Hampton Court, Middlesex and continued with their twins until world War I stopped production.
1919 Production started again with the 6hp and 8hp models, still with the counter-shaft and Gradua Gear, but, by November, these were joined by a 346cc flat-twin, still with the same transmission.
motorcycles were produced from 1912 to 1924, in Lower Ford Street, in Coventry.
1912 Lea Francis is perhaps better known as a car manufacturer but in the very early days the firm gained a reputation for the excellence of their bicycles. The prototypes of their motorcycle were produced in time for the 1912 Show. The machine was very well received, and featured all-chain drive in oil baths, multi-plate clutch, quickly detachable rear wheel, 2 speed gearbox with kick-starter, and particularly efficient mud-guarding. used JAP engines
1912  - 3.25hp JAP V-twin engine with chain-driven Bosch magneto, a two-speed gearbox, plate clutch and fully-enclosed chain final-drive. There were also Druid forks and dummy-rim brakes on both wheels. It was offered as a reliable and comfortable tourer.
1913-1917 For a list of the models and prices of motorcycles see the 1917 Red Book
1914 It was joined by a prototype combination using a 6-hp V-twin MAG engine, but the project was dropped due to the outbreak of war. Meanwhile, the other model was uprated to 3.5-hp JAP V-twin engine.
1915-1916 The 3.5hp model continued, with a three-speed gearbox.
1919 After the War, the same model reappeared, but with only two speeds.
click on photo for more

Lea-Francis 1916 
496cc J.A.P. V Twin  3.25BHP 
1911 - 5BHP

Reading the Zenith history, there might have been a 6BHP version that year too.
Royal Ruby 
 Motorcycles produced from 1911 to 1933
1911 Their first machine was a 3.5hp Cob model. This had an LMC engine, belt drive and sprung forks.
1912 This same model now had a 3.5hp JAP engine, Druid forks and either a Roc two-speed or Sturmey-Archer three-speed gear.
1913-14 Produced cyclecars
1913-1917 For a list of the models and prices of motorcycles see the 1917 Red Book
1913 More models were added with a 2.5hp single and V-twins of 3.5hp, 6hp and 8hp, using JAP engines and mostly the Roc gear.
1914 A sidecar model was added - this with an equally high standard of finish. A further model was a two-stroke, powered by a 269cc Villiers engine with belt drive or chain-driven two-speed Albion gearbox and fitted with Druid forks.
Those models continued until that year and then stopped in1916 
1916 Motor bicycle with sidecar. Exhibit at Manchester's Museum of Science and Industry.

Post-World War I. The firm introduced a frame with pivoted-fork rear suspension. Both rear and front suspensions used leaf springs.
1919 The company made its first move - to new premises in Altrincham, in Cheshire, where they made their own 349cc sv engines and two-speed gearboxes to fit the cycle parts. For their big V-twin sidecar outfit they kept to the JAP. This engine was a 976cc sv with three speeds and all-chain drive. It is thought that, in the early years after the war, some Royal Ruby machines were used by the Post Office to deliver mail. These were combinations fitted with postal carriers.

Motorcycles produced from 1909 to 1912.
Little is known of this make and it only had a short life. Small numbers of machines were constructed by fitting JAP engines to stock cycle parts. Both single and V-twin engines were used and the design was typical of the era.
of West Dulwich
Motorcycles produced from 1910 to 1914.
1910 The first machines had a 3.75hp single or 5hp V-twin Peugeot engine, direct-belt drive and a spring frame with sprung forks.
1911 The specification changed, to use a 4.5hp JAP engine in a rigid frame, or V-twins of the same make of 6hp, 7hp or 8hp.
 Royal Enfield
1912 There were three models for that year: the 2.75hp V-twin, a 2.5hp ladies' single and a 6hp sidecar V-twin using a JAP engine. Chain drive, two speeds and Druid forks were common to all. The Enfield Cush drive made its first appearance.
1913 The twins were joined by a 3hp model with a 424cc Royal Enfield engine with overhead inlet-valves and a dry-sump lubrication system. Until World War I, the big twins with 770cc, 6hp JAP engines and after WWI 976cc, 8hp Vickers-Wolseley engines.
1914 Little changed, but a TT version of the 3hp twin was added. Again the firm entered the Junior TT but what success they had was soon wiped out by tragedy when F. J. Walker came third but crashed at the finish and later died from his injuries. During the year the firm added a 225cc two-stroke, two-speed to the range. Lightweight and simple in design, the model had a long and successful lifespan.
1915 The first of the small two-stroke 225cc engines, starting with model 200, appeared.
World War I. Throughout the war years, the firm built the 6hp model for service sidecar use. Some were fitted out as an ambulance, others with a Maxim machine gun. They also experimented with 675cc three-cylinder in-line two-stroke with a bevel box to the two-speed gearbox and rear wheel by chain. Later came an 848cc in-line sv four built in-unit with a three-speed gearbox. Neither went into production.
1919 Civilian models returned in 1919, with just two forms. The 6 hp JAP V-twin with an 8hp engine option for sidecar work, and the 225cc two-stroke as basic transport.
In 1921 the larger model changed to a 976cc V-twin Wolseley engine made by Vickers to an Enfield design.
1923 Late in the year the range expanded by adding singles with 346cc sv and ohv JAP engines, still with two speeds.
1924 Three-speeds appeared, firstly on the four-strokes. In came drum brakes and some machines had a 346cc sv Enfield engine in preference to the JAP.
1913 the second model, had a 6-hp JAP V-twin engine was added. This was for sidecar work and had a three-speed gearbox. A 3.5hp single model, with a three-speed gearbox and cast-alloy primary chain-case, joined the range later that year.
1914 A TT version of the 3.5 hp model was listed that year and George Dance joined the team. He was later to become famous for success in sprints during the 1920s. They did well at the TT and the firm took the team prize.
World War I. The 2.75 hp model was dropped and 3.5hp model was produced in limited numbers.
Motorcycles produced in 1912.
Little information is available regarding this marque as it was a rare make not seen at shows or found on lists. One ran in a 1912 trial organised by the Ilkley club. It was possibly built by a local firm who used a 3.5hp JAP engine and typical cycle parts.

Motorcycles produced from 1913 to 1914.
This machine was built for racing or fast road-work. It had an ohv JAP engine, belt drive, rigid frame and Druid-pattern forks. Because it had very few fittings, it could be ridden to an event, stripped, competed and then ridden home.

Coventry Eagle 
of Foleshill Road, Coventry. 
The company produced motorcycles between 1899 and 1940.
1916 There was a model with a 2.5hp JAP engine.
Post-World War I. Only singles were produced.

1917 added a 654cc JAP V-twin model for service use and that, together with the single, comprised the post-war range.

Motorcycle manufacturers who used J.A.Prestwich Engines
1926 By now there were machines with 348cc Blackburne, 490cc JAP singles and 680cc and 980cc V-twin JAP engines.
1927 A 175cc sv lightweight was added for that year only.
1928 The lightweight was replaced by one using a 172cc Villiers two-stroke engine. The firm still had a sporting interest, and that year O. M. Baldwin set the motorcycle world speed record at over 124mph.
1920 After the Great War, the company returned to the market with only the two-stroke.
1921 A 976cc JAP V-twin was added.
1922 They produced a 488cc sv single, of their own design.
1923 More models were added that year.
1924 Their own model was enlarged to 545cc and they produced other models with sv and ohv Blackburne engines. It was the last year for the big V-twin. They started fitting saddle tanks to their models. They made a name at Brooklands when records were broken by Dougal Marchant riding a machine with a modified Blackburne engine. It helped sales, but the machines were expensive.
1925 Only three singles were listed.
1926 They unveiled a new 348cc ohc model of the face-cam type, with vertical shaft drive. There were also two sports models with either Blackburne or JAP engines. At 100mph it was the world's fastest 350cc machine. 
Marchant set a World Record Flying Kilometre for 350cc and 500cc motorcycles at 102.9mph for the firm, though the engine was his special and not the later face-cam Chater-Lea engine
1930 Only three road models were in production and the two-stroke was dropped.
Coventry Eagle 
Sometime they moved to 201 Foleshill Road
1921 The company returned to V-twins for this year only. There were two sidecar models that had either a 500cc single or a 680cc V-twin JAP engine.
1922 The company produced only singles, once again, using engines from Villiers, JAP and King Dick.
1923 The JAP V-twin returned, together with the appearance of the famous sporting twin Flying Eight. In various forms, this sporting twin would become one of the best remembered motorcycles. There was also a 147cc two-stroke of their own design.
1924 The two-stroke engine was enlarged to 170cc and the Flying Eight was available with sv or ohv JAP engines. With the latter and a Jardine gearbox, it became the second most expensive machine on the market.
1925 The two-stroke engine was enlarged again - to an Aza 175cc, with an Albion two-speed gearbox.
Two-strokes were then dropped altogether for a couple of seasons as the company concentrated on a wide range of four-strokes in single, twin forms and even with sidecar outfits.
1926   344cc Coventry Eagle-JAP took part in 200 mile sidecar race at Brooklands. Average speed 63.52 mph  (there is a photo of E S Prestwich alongside G Stocking & the J.A.P. team unavailable at this time)
1928 The policy of four-stroke only came to an end with the arrival of twin-port, super-sport Villiers engines in 147cc, 172cc and 172cc twin-port, super-sports forms appeared in a set of pressed steel cycle parts. The company also began to use forks from pressed sheet steel. Although this was common in Europe, Coventry Eagle were the first major British company to use this method - a move that proved to be very successful for the following decade.
1929 There were minor frame changes and the arrival of 196cc Villiers and 197c JAP engines brought the range to five models. The Flying Eights continued to progress and a similar name style was used on models with 344cc and 490cc two-port ohv JAP engines, known as the Flying 350 and the Flying 500. Both had a new cradle frame and tubular Webb girder forks.
November 1927.

Click on photo for more
1923 The model line was revised and the 988cc sv JAP V-twin engine made its debut. It could power the machine to around 80mph/130kmh, and keep it there all day.
1924 Until now the braking system had been the weak point in the design. The brakes were changed to drums in both hubs, and as a reporter had dubbed the model 'The Rolls-Royce of motorcycles', Brough used this accolade to boost publicity. With the JAP engine came the three-speed Sturmey-Archer gearbox, modified Harley-Davidson bottom-linked forks and a stylish tank. Capable of reaching 100mph, this was truly the first 'superbike'.
I believe you can still buy a modern version of this machine made by Japrestwich.com... so, owning one it's still in the Cards
There are other Broughs & Brough Superior models made before and during these dates, using their own engines, but that's another story.
Royal Ruby 
1921 Options now included rigid frame and sports trim, and there was a larger single of 375cc with a three-speed gearbox. Charlie Dodson, who was later to become a successful competitor in the Senior TT, was now an apprentice at the Altrincham works, and the factory regularly hosted overseas visitors who were keen to learn from British expertise.
1922 The range continued and Sturmey-Archer gearboxes were tried out on some models. The post-war recession affected the firm badly and it went into liquidation.
1923 Moved to Oldham.
1924 Early in the year, the name returned in Lancashire. This was following the acquisition of goodwill and assets by Horrocks' Motor House. They began with the 349cc sv model in a rigid frame, with Ruby gearbox and cantilever front fork. They then added a 292cc sv JAP version with a two-speed Albion gearbox.
1925 Those models continued, all with all-chain drive. They were joined by a sports machine with the 340cc oil-cooled ohv Bradshaw engine and three-speed Moss gearbox. It only lasted for one year.
1927 Only the JAP model continued. A move to Villiers two-stroke power brought in a new 343cc model, both with Albion three-speed gearboxes and chain drive.
1928 Villiers engined models were now of 172cc, 247cc and 343cc; JAP models had 248cc and 344cc ohv engines. The four-strokes had redesigned frames with duplicated front downtubes, one behind the other, and saddle fuel tanks.
1929 The four-strokes were discontinued and so, by the end of the decade, only two-strokes were in production.

Royal Enfield
1921 the larger model changed to a 976cc V-twin Wolseley engine made by Vickers to an Enfield design.
1923 Late in the year the range expanded by adding singles with 346cc sv and ohv JAP engines, still with two speeds.
1924 Three-speeds appeared, firstly on the four-strokes. In came drum brakes and some machines had a 346cc sv Enfield engine in preference to the JAP.

New Imperial
1921 That year brought success in the TT when Doug Prentice won the 250cc Lightweight race. Using that to advertise the make, they increased the range still further.
Mid-1920s The firm was now making its own engines and the JAP motors became an option before being dropped.

Excelsior Motor Company
1926 The range was smaller, but included a 346cc ohv JAP model.
1927 A 490cc model was added to the range, when engines were either Villiers or JAP
1928 This continued with the addition of just one two-stroke of 247cc.
1929 Other models were added to the list. Their first major racing success occurred that year, when they took the Lightweight TT race on a B14, soon to be their most popular model.

 motorcycles produced between 1921 and 1922, in Manchester.
1921 The first machine was advertised with the advice to 'Order at once to beat the rush'. Launched mid-year, it was nothing special and had a 292cc or 346cc sv JAP engine, Albion two-speed gearbox and chain-cum-belt drive. It was much like many others of the times.
1922 'The last word in Lightweights' was the slogan that year. Shortly after that, the machine disappeared from the market.
1923 The JAP-powered models were joined by a model fitted with the 348cc oil-cooled ohv Bradshaw engine.
1924 The range expanded still further with the addition of a model fitted with the same size Blackburne engine, one with an ohv JAP V-twin engine and another with a similar Anzani. Harry Reed came second in the Sidecar TT.
1924 Motorcycle. Exhibit at Manchester's Museum of Science and Industry.
1925 The range shrank to three 350cc models.
1926 The range remained the same until Harry Reed left the firm that year, at the age of fifty. It then passed to new owners who expanded the range.
1927 The range expanded still further with the introduction of several two-strokes of different capacity that ran alongside the various four-strokes.
1928 The depression years caused the range to shrink rapidly. DOT were now using Villiers engines only
Montgomery 1924
HRD & Vincent Motorcycles, 
1917. Legend has it that it was while a prisoner of war that he conceived the idea of building his own motorcycle, and contemplated how he might achieve that. It was not until 1924 that Davies entered into partnership with E. J. Massey, trading as HRD Motors. Various models were produced, generally powered by JAP (J. A. Prestwich Industries) engines.
1929 the first Vincent-HRD motorcycle used a JAP single-cylinder engine in a Vincent-designed cantilever frame. Some early bikes used Rudge Python engines. But after a disastrous 1934 Isle of Man TT, with engine problems and all three entries failing to finish, Philip Vincent (with Phil Irving) decided to build their own engines.

Motorcycle produced circa 1927.
This machine was typical of the era, assembled from bought-in parts and fitted with a sv JAP engine, probably disappeared due to the Depression.
Motorcycle manufacturers who used J.A.Prestwich Engines
Royal Ruby 
1930 Only the 247cc and the 343cc models continued.
1931 They were down to just one model - the 346cc Red Shadow.
1932 That single model was joined by Club and Standard versions of the same.
1933 They were joined by three versions of 249cc, one with water cooling. It was the final year.
1930 Joe Wright used a Zenith or (OEC?)to take the record to over 150mph/240kmh. Unfortunately, these sporting successes did not sell many machines, and the firm was taken over by Writer's, a large south London dealer. britishpathe.com video 150 miles an hour on a motorcycle (Worth a watch even with the advert)
1931 A reduced range was listed, all with JAP engines.
1933 Twenty models were offered.
1934 The range had reduced to fourteen models.
1939 The range had dwindled to just six models, which were all somewhat old-fashioned.
Post-war. They returned in 1947, but only one model was ever listed, and this used the 747cc sv JAP V-twin, in the pre-war format, with Druid girder forks. In time these were changed to Dowty Oleomatic.
1950 Production ceased.
Excelsior Motor Company
1930 The range had become very extensive, ranging from a 147cc Villiers machine to a 490cc JAP
1931 Even more models appeared, including the Universal, powered by a 98cc Villiers engine and priced at fourteen guineas - the lowest of all.
1932 More variations with Villiers or JAP engines appeared.
1933 The company had always supported the TT and, for that year's 'Lightweight', produced a winning motorcycle with a special Blackburne engine known as the Mechanical Marvel - so called because of four radial valves opened by twin high-camshafts using push-rods and rockers, twin carburetors and dry-sump lubrication.
1935 The four-valve 250cc Manxman was released, later produced in 350cc and 500cc sizes, as well as a 250cc model with a fully-enclosed, water-cooled engine.

1932  the Vincent Bantam appeared, powered by a 293cc sv JAP or 250cc Villiers engine. It was a 2.5 cwt delivery van with a car seat and a steering wheel. 
The Bantam cost £57-10-0 and the windscreen and hood option cost £5-10-0. Production ceased in 1936.

Motorcycle manufacturers who used J.A.Prestwich Engines
1940 Wartime brought all production of motorcycles to a close and the engineering works turned to the war effort. The capabilities of the factory to produce high-precision engineering resulted in the supply of Merlin crankshafts for Rolls-Royce.

1947,  returned but only one model was ever listed, and this used the 747cc sv JAP V-twin, in the pre-war format, with Druid girder forks. In time these were changed to Dowty Oleomatic.
1950 Production ceased.

 Produced from 1955 to circa 1960, was a typical speedway machine built by Mike Erskine, in small numbers.
 It was fitted with the usual JAP engine, countershaft, rigid frame and short-travel forks

1961 Photo from graciesguide

Information & some photo's from Gracysguide, some are my own. - coalated & edited by myself (so copyright is mine in this format).
I hope the information is good,  I believe it to be so, but I will take no respobnsabilty if it finds not to be.
One thing you can do with a web page which you can't do when making a book, is modify it.
So this page , the same of all my pages, it's subject to change! 17-01-2013
Wondering the Matcless Modell X & the AJS M1 are not in here....
Not signed JAP on engine, not listed as JAP in the history I have available,
so J.A.P. engines reversed engineered, cloned modified many might be,
but If it's come from JAP.... it's not JAP